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https://assobrafirciencia.org/article/doi/10.47066/2177-9333.AC.2022.0050
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Artigo de Revisão

Fisioterapia em pacientes adultos em estado crítico internados com COVID-19: revisão integrativa

Natália de Souza Ribeiro, Daianny Seoni de Oliveira, Liria Yuri Yamauchi

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Resumo

Introdução: A pandemia de COVID-19 afetou a vida de milhares de pessoas, principalmente pela sua alta taxa de mortalidade e sequelas. Dados da literatura evidenciam que entre os pacientes internados em unidade de terapia intensiva, a maioria foi devido à insuficiência respiratória hipoxêmica, logo, a atuação do fisioterapeuta intensivista vem mostrando-se fundamental na reabilitação desses pacientes. Objetivo: Avaliar e descrever as principais condutas e efeitos da fisioterapia em pacientes adultos infectados com COVID-19 sob cuidados intensivos. Métodos: Revisão integrativa da literatura incluindo estudos que relataram intervenções fisioterapêuticas em pacientes adultos sob cuidado intensivo, disponíveis eletronicamente de janeiro de 2019 a junho de 2021. Após a formulação da pergunta norteadora, cruzaram-se os descritores: “COVID-19”, “Unidade de Terapia Intensiva” e “Fisioterapia”. Utilizou-se as bases de dados Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), PUBMED, EMBASE e Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Resultados: Foram resgatados 698 artigos e após os processos de seleção e análise, 38 foram incluídos nesta revisão. Os artigos analisados possuem características observacionais, narrativas, revisionais e experimentais. As condutas fisioterapêuticas mais citadas foram relacionadas à ventilação mecânica invasiva (n=9); técnicas de remoção de secreção (n=13) e de expansão pulmonar (n=9); exercícios respiratórios (n=14); exercícios passivos e ativos (n=23), exercícios de transferência e mudanças de posição (n=17). Conclusão: Os resultados reforçam a importância da atuação do fisioterapeuta, principalmente em pacientes submetidos à internação e intubação pela COVID-19. Novos estudos serão necessários para avaliar o impacto da fisioterapia, tanto intra-hospitalar quanto após a alta hospitalar, na recuperação da qualidade de vida e da funcionalidade dessa população.
 

Palavras-chave

COVID-19; Fisioterapia; Unidade de Terapia Intensiva.

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Submetido em:
14/10/2021

Aceito em:
13/05/2022

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